19th Century Europe

After Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna restored the Bourbons to France created the Congress System to control nationalism and radicalization. In 1848, revolutions erupted over Europe, especially France, Italy, Hungary, and the German States. Out of the chaos of 1848, Napoleon III emerged in France. Meanwhile, Austria was weakened by Hungarian revolutionaries and French support of Piedmont-Sardinia. Prussia strengthened its position among the German States. Ultimately, Prussia defeated France in the Franco-Prussian War and established itself as a significant power in Europe.

The French Revolution

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(Photo Credit: Jacques-Louis David)