NFL Kneelers, 4,645 Dead Puerto Ricans, and Native American Citizenship

Citizenship

On this day, June 2, 1924, U.S. President Calvin Coolidge signed the Indian Citizenship Act into law, granting citizenship to all Native Americans born within the territorial limits of the United States.

It was enacted partially in recognition of the thousands of Indians who served in the armed forces during World War I. The Fourteenth Amendment already defined as citizens any person born in the U.S., but only if “subject to the jurisdiction thereof”; this latter clause excluded anyone who already had citizenship in a foreign power such as a tribal nation.

So what do Native Americans, Puerto Ricans, the District of Columbia, African-Americans, and the NFL kneelers have in common?